The rapidly expanding Histone GO® Peptides now include citrullinated sequences in addition to sequences that are acetylated, mono-, di- or tri-methylated, phosphorylated and biotinylated.
AnaSpec now offers Histone H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 Modifications (with or without biotin), including citrullinated, acetylated, methylated (mono, di, tri) and phosphorylated.
Chromatin exist either as the transcriptionally active euchromatin or as the transcriptionally repressed heterchromatin state.1 Post-translational modifications of histone “tails” (amino termini) have been implicated in the conversion between the two states.1-2 Covalent modifications, such as acetylation, methylation, citrullination and phosphorylation, affect chromatin structure and exquisitely regulate gene expression.3-6 In histones, citrullination or deimination of arginine to citrulline (Cit), a non-conventional amino acid in protein is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4 or PADI4) in the presence of Ca2+; with PAD4 being the only PAD with a nuclear localization.7-9 Cuthbert, et al. reported that PAD4 deiminates unmodified arginine and monomethyl, but not dimethyl arginine.9 Wang, et al. found that PAD4 demethyliminates histones in vitro and in vivo, regulating both histone Arg methylation and gene activity.10 Histone hypercitrullination catalyzed by PAD4 appears to play a critical role in chromatin decondensation in granulocytes/neutrophils.11
1. Grunstein, M. et al. J Cell Sci Suppl 19, 29 (1995).
2. Strahl, BR and CD Allis, Nature 403, 41 (2000).
3. Strahl, BD. et al. Proc. Natl Acad Sci 96, 14967 (1999).
4. Jenuwein, T. and CD. Allis, Science 293, 1074 (2001).
5. Sterner, DE. et al. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64, 435 (2000).
6. Lachner, M. et al. J Cell Sci 116, 2117 (2003).
7. Vossenaar, ER. et al. Bioassays 25, 1106 (2003).
8. Nakashima, K. et al. J Biol Chem 277, 49562 (2002).
9. Cuthbert, GL. et al. Cell 118, 545 (2004).
10. Wang, Y. et al. Science 306, 279 (2004).
11. Wang, Y. et al. J Cell Bio 184, 205 (2009).
AnaSpec, EGT Group
AnaSpec, EGT Group (anaspec.com) is a leading provider of integrated proteomics and genomics solutionsTM for worldwide life science research. AnaSpec offers expertise in peptides, detection reagents, antibodies, assay kits, amino acids, oligonucleotides, and qPCRs. AnaSpec carries a broad product line of biochemicals and reagents for basic research, high-throughput screening and drug discovery. AnaSpec also provides premier custom services including peptide synthesis, antibody production, assay development, fluorescent dyes, and oligonucleotide synthesis. AnaSpec is certified to ISO 9001:2008.