These proteins, along with g-synuclein (SNCG), are members of the synuclein family of small proteins expressed primarily in neural tissue and in some tumors.1 Synuclein proteins, found only in vertebrates, possess a highly conserved N-terminal domain, with a variable number of 11-residue repeats and a less conserved C-terminal, with a preponderance of acidic residues.1
a-Synuclein is an abundant protein of 140 residues that is present in high concentration at presynaptic terminals and is found in both soluble and membrane-associated fractions of the brain. Several possible functions have been suggested, among which are vesicle release and trafficking. In vitro incubation in the presence of salt (i.e. 0.1M NaCl) with agitation causes a-Synuclein to form fibrils.2-6 a-Synuclein, labeled with AnaSpec’s proprietary green dye, HiLyte Fluor™ 488 (Ex/Em=503/525 nm) is also available.
N-terminal of β-synuclein is highly homologous to α-, γ-synucleins and consists of degenerative “KTKEGV” repeats.7-10 Similar to α-synuclein, beta-synuclein is found primarily in the brain; however, it does not associate with Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease like α-synuclein.7-10 Beta-synuclein was found to inhibit production of phosphatidic acid by the phospholipase D2 transmembrane protein in vitro.7 In addition, β-synuclein was detected in many breast and ovarian tumors.7 Recent investigations demonstrated that β-synuclein can induce mild experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats.8
1. George, JM. Genome Biol. 3, reviews 3002.1 (2002).
2. Trojanowski, JQ. & VM. Lee, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 991, 107 (2003).
3. Masliah, E., et al. Science 287, 1265 (2000).
4. Van Der, P. H, et al. J. Neurosci. 20, 6021 (2000).
5. Feany, MB. & WW. Bender, Nature 404, 394(2000).
6. Weinreb, P. H., et al. Biochemistry 35, 13709 (1996).
7. Rivers, R.C. et al. Protein Sci 17, 887 (2008).
8. Sung, Y-H. et al. Protein Sci 15, 1162 (2006).
9. George, JM. Genome Biol 3, 3002.1 (2001).
10. Bruening, W. et al. Am Cancer Soc 88, 2154 (2000).
11. Kela-Madar, N. et al. J Neuroimmunol 208, 19 (2009).
AnaSpec (anaspec.com) is a leading provider of integrated proteomics solutions to the world’s largest biotech, pharmaceutical, and academic research institutions. With a vision for innovation through synergy, AnaSpec focuses on three core technologies: peptides, detection reagents, and antibodies.
AnaSpec recently joined forces with Eurogentec to provide an even broader spectrum of products and services to serve the worldwide life science community.
Eurogentec is a leading global supplier of innovative reagents, kits, specialty products and custom services to scientists in the life science, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and diagnostic markets. Eurogentec provides a wide range of expertize in small- and large-scale DNA, RNA, PCR and qPCR kits, peptide synthesis and antibody supply for research applications. Our ISO13485:2003-certified manufacturing facilities in Belgium provides a wide range of high value oligonucleotide-based components for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Eurogentec’s Belgium manufacturing facility is complemented by additional production facilities in North America and Japan. Eurogentec is also an experienced Contract Manufacturing Organization (CMO) for Biopharmaceuticals, operating a full-service, state-of-the-art GMP facility in Belgium.
Eurogentec is a privately held company headquartered in Liège, Belgium, with subsidiaries in North America, France, Germany, the UK, the Netherlands and Switzerland and has additional production facilities in North America, Japan and Singapore. Eurogentec employs 400+ people globally. For more information visit Eurogentec website.